Werewolves, new view on the old mystery 

Werewolf can be characterized as the half human and half wolf. Raging creature longing for blood and flesh, who might not remember what happened. Overall, we can say, that the figure of wolf recorded an interesting move from a recognized animal tu brutal beast. But wolf is not the only animal, who scored such a huge turnover. We may mention a cat, who was seen as guardian against evil, but with the onset of the Inquisition cat became a servant of witches. Also wolf was considered as a powerful animal and people believed, that the souls of some deaths may turn into wolves.

The idea of changing human soul after death in an animal is widespread throughout the world. As reported Jaroslav Mareš in Malaysia live natives, who believed that the souls of the dead will transform into tigers, respectively, that some "native magicians are able to take form of a tiger. After the death they live in tiger body forever, but still think and act like humans. In some areas they are not buried (...) their bodies are laid on a wooden place on the trees."

Of course we may think about the existence of such a great power of our souls and the possibility of transformation to an animal. But the fact is, that the wolves were recognized because of tremendous strength and courage. People also believed that if parents will give to the child the name in which is wolf, such as Wolfgang or Wolfhard, wolf will gives him his strength and courage. However, as stated Jerome Clark „as Christianity rose to power, the priesthood condemned such pagan belief as Satanic.  As a consequence, werewolves came to be seen as the devil´s agents. Theological writers debated whether humans literally turnet into wolves or simply were perceived as wolves by those whom Satan had deluded. Consensus held foth for the latter, on the ground that only God, whose powers are greater than the devil´s, could effect a physical change of species.

Although it might seem at first glance that the existence of werewolves is strict domain of Europe - Bisclavret (Britain), Lobarraz (Portugal), Vaerulf (Denmark) or Werewulf (Germany) - it is not so. In many countries of different continents we can find relatives of Europen werewolves. Basically in mythologies around the world, we can find various creatures like the Europen werewolf. However, how could a common man turn into a raging monster? On this question try respond many different theories, some said that into werewolf will turn somebody born with teeth or on some important day as Christmas. Furthermore, the existence of werewolves may conceal a sort of dark curse, drink from the wolf track, etc.


However, there are also other interesting explanations for the werewolves. One of them is talking about some sort of mysterious ointment, which people changed in the werewolves. As one of the cases may be mentioned case of Gilles Garnier, who lived in 16 century near Dole, France. This man after marriage found it difficult to take care of a family than just himself. During the period after his marriage dissapeared several children and began to spread rumors about werewolf. During one evening heard a group of farmers in the forest cries of a small child with howling wolf. Farmers found the injured child with a strange creature, which was later identified as Giles Garnier. Garnier testified that one night, when he was looking for livelihood for himself and his wife, a kind of specter offered him ointment that should help him transform into a wolf and simplify his hunting. Garnier later confessed, that he killed four children and from the crimes of lycantropy and witchcraft was burned at the stake.

Can we really assume, that human beings could turn into a werewolf through the use of magical ointment? In this case, we can think about the existence of an ointment, but also about its content. Could this ointment containt ingredients that have hallucinogenic effects, under which the person believes that it is actually a werewolf or man could really turn into a werewolf? As a part of efforts to explain the existence of werewolves spread assumption that in the Middle Ages bread baked from grain affected by ergot, which produces LSD, causing hallucinations. Might this mysterious ointment content something, which caused hallucinations or it contained something stronger?

As reported by Viky Oksanen "in France in 1733, a woman standing before the court demonstrated the use of ointment. She slathered it under the arm and on both temples. Then she laid down and about 40 minutes did not perceive nothing around. Then she wakes up and accurately describe where she was, where killed which animal. People in the hall laugh, but then came a man who was sent to places, which woman described. Man confirmed exactly everything what she said. Village was full of large wolf tracks and from wounds still oozed blood."

A similar example, this time about the leopard man brings us Jaroslav Mareš, who states the story of magician named Mulobola, who lived in southwestern Uganda. Villagers thought that this man had ability during deep trance take the form of a leopard. When the hunter finally managed to shoot dangerous animal, villagers found also dead magician, who had the same fatal blow in heart like a leopard, but a bullet in the body of a man was not find. Only in the body of leopard.

It is therefore possible that in the case when people use some magic ointment they combined themselves with a wolf. How it is possible? In this case we can talk about nagualism, that represents the person´s ability to reincarnate into animal forms, whether in the form of a wolf, tiger, leopard, donkey, dog, jaguar, cougar, etc. Although at first glance it may seem unrealistic, many historians, Christian priests and missionaries  in Latin America specified examples of nagualism. According to Father Juan Bautista, Roman clergy in Mexico: “Some of the magicians will transform themselves to all appearances (segun la aparencia), into a tiger, a dog or a weasel. Others again will take the form of an owl, a cock, or a weasel; and when one is preparing to seize them, they will appear now as a cock, now as an owl, and again as a weasel. These call themselves nanahualtin.”

Belt made of wolf skin

Further explanation of the existence of werewolves is in the form of a belt made of wolf skin. In the 16th century in Germany lived werewolf named Peter Stubbe also called as the werewolf from Bedbrug. During his rampage people often found torn cattle and children and young women disappeared. Stubbe lured, killed and consumed two men and one woman, killed a pregnant woman, 14 children and so on. He claimed that the devil gave him a magic belt, through which he can transform into a wolf. Unbelievable? Maybe. When hunters with dogs chased the beast for days, they testified, that they chased the wolf, not a man, although some sources say that hunters claimed that wolf was walking on two legs. When dogs chased wolf into a corner and stopped in front of monster, they found out, that it was not a wolf, but Peter Stubbe. Transformed, thanks to a magical belt?


Finally, we can not circumvent an initial, mythological explanation of the transformation into werewolf, which can be found in the Greek myth of Lycaon, who presented on the dinner for Zeus human flesh, to test his omnipotence. Zeus punished Lycaon by turning him into a wolf. However is a combination of human and an animal at all possible? Mermaids, Harpies, Sphinxes, Centaurs, Minotaur, Medusa and also strange combinations and mutations of various animals such as Cerberos, Chimera, Hydra and many others at first view may seem just as creatures of myths, legends and fairy tales to intimidate seekers of mythical treasures and ancient countries. But in these creatures people really believed and except mythology we may find these strange creatures also on the other places or in the files. For example Eusebius, major Christian author and cleric of the fourth century, wrote in his Chronicle descriptions of various strange creatures, of which we can mention for example those „with four wings and two faces, with one body and two heads (...) Other humans had the legs of goats, horns on their heads, others had horses´ hooves. Others had the rear half of a horse and the front half of a human.“

Next, as stated Arnošt Vašíček "unique hybrids of humans and scorpions can be found on the walls of the temple in Mexican Tule. In Egypt is exposed unusual sphinx with the body of a snake. Same creature feared Maori in New Zealand. It is also carved into the walls of many temples in Konarak and Bhubaneswar in Indian state Orissa."

Many researches believe that the leaders of extraterrestial civilizations on Earth performed genetic experiments that have resulted in various chimeras, which we might, as Oxford English Dictionary, described as a "mixture of genetically different tissues, formed by processes such as fusion of early embryos.

Genetic "combinations" of animals, however, already are not something unusual. Scientists from the University of California created a sheep-goat chimera, called geep. As reported by Times Daily: „Dr. Gary Anderson and his coleagues have made nine geeps by taking cells from a seven-day-old goat embryo and inserting them into a seven-day-old sheep embryo, then implanting the joint embryo into a ewe´s womb. (...) Geeps just look strange. The oldest, Duchess, was born in April 1985 to a sheep. Duchess has the face and eyes of a goat, but the rest of her is, well, quite sheepish. She has short legs, cleft hooves and thick wool.“

So, we can see that the existence of chimeras is real and it can be assumed that when we was visited in the past by extraterrestrial civilization they also could make various attempts that have resulted in strange creatures of "myths and legends." Whatever was the method of converting humans into wolf, the fact remains, that the werewolf will always be a part of cultures around the world. But the question, which still remains is the method of conversion, the general perception of werewolves and primordial belief in these creatures before the boom of Christianity and Inquisition.

picture source: https://pixabay.com/sk/vlk-vlci-pes-lupina-psie-canis-3022813/ 


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